From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Influences and styles
Turkistan (Timurid) architecture
Ottoman Turkish architecture
|This article may contain wording that promotes the subject in a subjective manner without imparting real information. Please remove or replace such wording or find sources which back the claims.|
Indo-Islamic (Mughal) architecture
Sub-Saharan African Islamic architecture
|Please help improve this article or section by expanding it. Further information might be found on the talk page. (November 2007)|
Architecture Forms and Styles of mosques and buildings in Muslim countries
Elements of Islamic style
- Minarets or towers (these were originally used as torch-lit watchtowers, as seen in the Great Mosque of Damascus; hence the derivation of the word from the Arabic nur, meaning "light").
- A four-iwan plan, with three subordinate halls and one principal one that faces toward Mecca
- Mihrab or prayer niche on an inside wall indicating the direction to Mecca. This may have been derived from previous uses of niches for the setting of the torah scrolls in Jewish synagogues or the haikal of Coptic churches.
- Iwans to intermediate between different pavilions.
- The use of geometric shapes and repetitive art (arabesque).
- The use of muqarnas, a unique Arabic/Islamic space-enclosing system, for the decoration of domes, minarets and portals. Used at the Alhambra.(Compare mocárabe.) Modern muqarnas designs 
- The use of decorative Islamic calligraphy instead of pictures which were haram (forbidden) in mosque architecture. Note that in secular architecture, human and animal representation was indeed present.
- The use of bright color, if the style is Persian or Indian (Mughal); paler sandstone and grey stones are preferred among Arab buildings. Compare the Registan complex of Uzbekistan to the Al-Azhar University of Cairo.
- Focus both on the interior space of a building and the exterior
Differences between Islamic architecture and Persian architecture
- ^ a b Copplestone, p.149
- ^http://www.islamonline.net/servlet/Satellite?c=Article_C&cid=1158658332974&pagename=Zone-English-ArtCulture%2FACELayout A Tour of Architecture in Islamic Cities
- ^ Peter J. Lu and A. (2007). "Decagonal and Quasi-crystalline Tilings in Medieval Islamic Architecture" (PDF). Science 315: 1106–1110. doi:10.1126/science.1135491. PMID 17322056. http://www.physics.harvard.edu/~plu/publications/Science_315_1106_2007.pdf.
- ^ Supplemental figures 
- ^ Tonna (1990), pp.182-197
- ^ Grabar, O. (2006) p.87
- ^ Ettinghausen (2003), p.87
- ^ a b "Islam", The New Encyclopedia Britannica (2005)
- ^ a b c Behrens-Abouseif, Doris. Cairo of the Mamluks : A History of Architecture and Its Culture. New York: Macmillan, 2008.
- ^ Cowen, Jill S. (July/August 1985). "Muslims in China: The Mosque". Saudi Aramco World. pp. 30-35. http://www.saudiaramcoworld.com/issue/198504/muslims.in.china-the.mosques.htm. Retrieved on 2006-04-08.
- ^ Saudi Aramco World, July/August 1985 , page 3035
- ^ Historical Society of Ghana. Transactions of the Historical Society of Ghana, The Society, 1957, pp81
- ^ Davidson, Basil. The Lost Cities of Africa. Boston: Little Brown, 1959, pp86
- ^ a b c d Hillenbrand, R. "Masdjid. I. In the central Islamic lands". in P.J. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel and W.P. Heinrichs. Encyclopaedia of Islam Online. Brill Academic Publishers. ISSN 1573-3912.
- ^ "Religious Architecture and Islamic Cultures". Massachusetts Institute of Technology. http://web.mit.edu/4.614/www/handout02.html. Retrieved on 2006-04-09.
- ^ a b "Vocabulary of Islamic Architecture". Massachusetts Institute of Technology. http://ocw.mit.edu/OcwWeb/Architecture/4-614Religious-Architecture-and-Islamic-CulturesFall2002/LectureNotes/detail/vocab-islam.htm#islam6. Retrieved on 2006-04-09.