Wednesday, May 27, 2009


List of caliphs

Rashidun ("Righteously Guided") 632 - 661

Umayyads of Damascus 661 - 750

Abbasids of Baghdad 750 - 1258


(During the latter period of Abbasid rule, Muslim rulers began using other titles, such as Sultan).

Fatimids of Cairo 910 - 1171

Umayyads (Rahmanid branch) of Córdoba 929 - 1031

(Not universally accepted; actual authority confined to Spain and parts of Morocco)

Almohads of Spain and Morocco 1145 - 1266

(Not widely accepted)

Abbasid branch of Cairo 1261 - 1517

(The Cairo Abbasids were largely ceremonial Caliphs under the patronage of the Mamluk Sultanate)

Sultans of the Ottoman Empire 1451 - 1922

Originally the secular, conquering dynasty was just entitled Sultan, soon it started accumulating titles assumed from subjected peoples.

From 1908 onwards the Ottoman Sultan was considered the equivalent of a constitutional monarch without executive powers, with parliament consisting of chosen representatives.

Republic of Turkey 1922 - 1924

The Office of the Caliphate was transferred to the Turkish Grand National Assembly which dissolved the office on March 3, 1924, in keeping with the policies of secularism that were adopted in the early years of the Republic of Turkey. The current pretender to the Imperial House of Osman is Prince Shehzade Ertugrul Osman Efendi Hazretleri, Prince of the Ottoman Empire and 43rd Head of the Imperial House of Osman.

Sharifan house in (now Saudi) Arabia

A last attempt at restoring the caliphal office and style with ecumenical recognition was made by al-Husayn ibn `Ali al-Hashimi, King of al-Hijaz and Sharif of Mecca, who assumed both 11 March 1924 and held them until his passing the kingship to his son `Ali ibn al-Husayn al-Hashimi, who did not adopt the khalifal office and style.

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